The farmer of India is once again on the road. Farmers are forced to hit the road against the new agricultural laws brought by the central government. Farmers fear that the new laws will eliminate mandis as well as procurement of MSP ie MSP will also be stopped. On the other hand, the government says that the purchase on MSP will not stop. As such, farmers in different states continued to stand against the government through their movements.
The pinnacle of power has been moving and falling due to these movements. Talking about the current movement, the whole country is changing with the spark that has arisen from Punjab. Farmers have also taken to the streets in other parts of the country including Haryana Rajasthan Maharashtra, Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Odisha, West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh and Bihar. As if Delhi has been surrounded by agitating farmers from all around.
Today we will talk about some important peasant movements in Indian history and some great Farmer Protests in India till date.
India got a big farmer leader
Mahendra Singh Tikait, the father of farmer leader Rakesh Tikait, was also identified due to the farmer movement and he was considered to be the biggest farmer leader of the country. Chaudhary Charan Singh and Chaudhary Devi Lal were also peasant leaders, but they also had their own political parties, while Mahendra Singh Tikait was a purely peasant leader.
In 1987, farmers were facing a power crisis due to the burning of a power house in Khedi village of Muzaffarnagar in western Uttar Pradesh. On 1 April 1987, Mahendra Singh Tikait, one of these farmers, called upon all farmers to encircle the powerhouse.
This was a period when there was hardly any electricity available in the village. On seeing this, millions of farmers gathered. Tikait himself was not even aware of this. The farmers then got a big farmer leader in the form of Tikait. He felt that he could also make a big movement.
Biggest farmers protests in India
In January 1988, the farmers organized a 25-day strike in Meerut under the flag of their new organization, the Bharatiya Kisan Union. At that time it was also discussed internationally. Farmers organizations and leaders from all over India were involved in this demand that the government should fix the price of their produce from the year 1967.
The most important thing was that Tikait was a non-political peasant leader. He never formed any political party. The Rajiv Gandhi government of that time also had to bow down due to the movement of Mahendra Singh Tikait.
The peasants also shook the British power. The British state also witnessed peasant movements from time to time and they not only played an important role in the independence movement but also shook the foundation of British power.
However, Gandhiji had a clear influence on the peasant movement before independence. After the failed rebellion of 1857, the front of the protest was taken up by the peasants because the biggest agitations of the British and Indian princely states stemmed from their exploitation. In reality, in all the peasant movements that took place, most of the movements were against the British.
The movement of indigo farmers, Pavana rebellion, Kebhaga movement, Satyagraha of Champaran were among the major movements in the country. They were also led by great leaders like Mahatma Gandhi and Vallabhbhai Patel.
1. Deccan Rebellion
The movement started in December 1874 from Kada village in Surur taluka, Maharashtra.
A moneylender Kaluram received orders for auction of the house against farmer Baba Saheb Deshmukh from the court. On this, the farmers started a movement against the moneylenders. The special thing is that this movement was not limited to one or two places but spread to different parts of the country.
2. Unitary movement
This movement started in Uttar Pradesh. The Kisan Sabha was formed in Uttar Pradesh in February 1918 as a result of the efforts of the Home Rule League activists and the guidance of Madan Mohan Malaviya. In the last days of 1919, organized rebellion of the peasants came to the fore.
This organization was also supported by Jawaharlal Nehru. In Hardoi Bahraich and Sitapur districts of Uttar Pradesh, this movement was organized to collect revenue in the form of growth and yield.
3. Mopala Rebellion
The Mopala rebellion was carried out in 1920 by Mopal farmers in the Marabar region of Kerala. Initially, this rebellion was against the British rule. This movement was supported by leaders like Mahatma Gandhi, Shaukat Ali Maulana, Abdul Kalam Azad. However, in 1920 this movement took the form of a communal movement among Hindu Muslims and was subsequently crushed.
4. Kuka Rebellion
This movement was started in 1872 by Punjab’s Kukar i.e. Namdhari Sikhs. It was an armed rebellion. This rebellion was done in protest against agra rian problems and the promotion of slaughter of cows by the British government. It was led by Balak Singh and his follower Guru Ram Singh. 66 Namdhari Sikhs were martyred during the Kuka Rebellion.
5. Tana Bhagat movement
The Tana Bhagat movement started against the high rate of rent and tax payers. It was also widely supported by the workers. This movement started in 1974 in Bihar, whose originator was Jatra Bhagat.
6. Telangana movement
In Andhra Pradesh, this movement was started in 1946 against the exploitation of zamindars and moneylenders. The form of peasant movement after 1858 was different from the earlier movement. Now the farmers started fighting their own battles without any middlemen. Most of their demands were financial.
7. Champaran Satyagraha
Champaran Satyagraha was done in 1859 by the farmers of Bihar. In Champaran, the British p lanters had signed a contract with the farmers, under which farmers were required to cultivate Neel on 30% of the land. When Gandhiji became aware of this odd situation in , he decided to go to Bihar. Gandhiji went to Bihar with Rajendra Prasad and performed his first Satyagraha against the British rule.
8. Bardoli Satyagraha
In 1928, a movement was launched by farmers to pay rent in Bardoli taluka of Surat. In this movement, not only the landlord farmers of the upper castes, but also the farmers of all the tribes took part. This movement was led by Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel.
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